Bibliography File Note.
The article examines transnational crime in relation to refugee protection. It is stated that the criminalization of refugees can be described throughout different periods following the Second World War. Contemporary criminalization discussions increasingly consider forced migration as an example of transnational crime rather than individual deviance. Moreover, governments of the global North reduce forced migration to human smuggling which in turn is regarded as another example of transnational crime. This is frequently located on a continuum with the movement of illicit goods across borders and drug trafficking.